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Explanation of the principle and common faults of hydraulic press

by:WORLD     2022-09-09

Hydraulic presses are machines that use Pascal's law and are driven by liquid pressure. There are many types. Of course, the use is also varied according to needs.

Hydraulic press, also known as hydraulic press, uses liquid to transmit pressure. The basic principle is that the oil pump transports hydraulic oil to the integrated cartridge valve block, and distributes the hydraulic oil to the upper cavity or lower cavity of the cylinder through each one-way valve and relief valve. Under the action of high pressure oil, the cylinder is moved.

As shown in the figure above, the areas of the large and small plungers of the four-column hydraulic press are S2 and S1 respectively, and the forces on the plungers are F2 and F1 respectively. According to Pascal's principle, the pressure of the closed liquid is equal everywhere, that is, F2/S2=F1/S1=p; F2=F1(S2/S1). Due to S2/S1>1, so it represents the gain effect of its hydraulic pressure. If 100 tons of power is input and the gain coefficient is 10, 1000 tons of pressure can be output. Like the mechanical gain, the force is increased, but the work is not increased, so the moving distance of the large plunger is S1/S2 times the moving distance of the small plunger.

When the liquid in the hydraulic cylinder transmits pressure in a closed container, it follows Pascal's law. The hydraulic transmission system consists of a power mechanism, a control mechanism, an actuator, an auxiliary mechanism and a working medium. The power mechanism usually uses an oil pump as the power mechanism, generally an accumulating oil pump. In order to meet the requirements of the movement speed of the actuator, choose one oil pump or multiple oil pumps. Gear pump for low pressure (oil pressure less than 2.5MP); vane pump for medium pressure (oil pressure less than 6.3MP), plunger pump for high pressure (oil pressure less than 32.0MP). The drive system of the four-column hydraulic press mainly includes two types of pump direct drive and pump-accumulator drive.

During the operation of the hydraulic press, sometimes the bolts fall off and fall into the hydraulic cylinder, causing serious scratches on the plunger wall. After the problem occurs, the traditional method cannot achieve on-site repair at all. It can only be disassembled and shipped to the manufacturer for repair welding processing or scrapped replacement. Due to the lack of replacement of spare parts, the time to re-produce parts or return to the factory for maintenance cannot be controlled. Long-term downtime will cause serious economic losses to the enterprise, and at the same time, high processing or repair costs must be paid. In order to meet the requirements of the enterprise's continuous production, it is necessary to find a convenient, fast, simple and effective maintenance method to solve the problem of the equipment, minimize the downtime of the enterprise and reduce the maintenance cost.

The method of polymer composite materials can be used for on-site repair, and the more mature Bliss Blue system can be used. The metal repair 2211F polymer composite material is used for on-site repair, which has super adhesive force, excellent compression resistance, balanced comprehensive physical and chemical properties, and good wear resistance. It can repair the scratches of the plunger on site without machining, avoid scrapping and replacement, and prolong the service life of the equipment.

Common faults of hydraulic presses


1. Bake the scratched part with oxygen-acetylene flame (control the temperature and avoid surface annealing), bake the oil that has permeated the metal surface all the year round, and bake it until there are no sparks.

2. Treat the scratched parts with an angle grinder to a depth of more than 1 mm, and grind out grooves along the outer wall of the cylinder, preferably dovetail grooves. Drill holes at both ends of the scratch to deepen and change the force.

3. Clean the surface with absorbent cotton dipped in acetone or absolute ethanol.

4. Apply the evenly blended Meijiahua-Fushilan 2211F metal repair material to the scratched surface; the first layer should be thin, evenly and fully cover the scratched surface to ensure the best bonding between the material and the metal surface, and then apply After the material is applied to the entire repair site, press repeatedly to ensure that the material is filled to the desired thickness, slightly higher than the surface of the outer wall of the cylinder.

5. It takes 24 hours for the material to fully achieve various properties at 24°C. In order to save time, the temperature can be increased by using a halogen tungsten lamp. Every 11°C increase in temperature, the curing time will be shortened by half, and the optimal curing temperature is 70°C.

6. After the material is solidified, use a fine grindstone or a scraper to repair and smooth the material that is higher than the outer wall surface of the cylinder, and the construction is completed.

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